Brown Bear (Ursus arctos)
The brown bear, which lives close to us, is one of the largest predators. It reaches the largest size in the Far East, and in Central Asia, bears are the smallest, since they are 3 times inferior to their Far Eastern brother. The average size of a brown bear is 2.5-3 meters.
Most of all bears live in the northern part of Russia and in the Caucasus. It is difficult to name the place of his exact habit - it is an eternal vagabond: besides food, he has no big preferences. If there is a lot of food in this area, then it will not go further than 500 hectares. And if it is not enough, the bear becomes the present nomad. Bear - a typical inhabitant of large forests, old coniferous and mixed forests, in which there are clearings and water. Brown bear habits old, littered forests near moss bogs and places where it is possible to arrange a comfortable den.
Brown bear is a lover of night time and twilight, and therefore it is difficult to meet it in the daytime, except in rainy time. For wintering, to make a den, the bear goes deeper into the forest. Hibernates in about November, and if the autumn was warm, then in December. Bears sleep throughout the winter, and this is about 200 days. On the Kola Peninsula, they sleep the longest, almost until April. This is understandable, because it is very cold there. But in the Caucasus, the brown bear is awake all year.
Winter bears bear arrange in the most dry places: on windbreaks, in burrows and crevices, less often - directly on the ground or under the branches of a spruce spruce. The bear carefully lays the lair with moss, dry grass, needle branches, leaves and hay. Approaching the snow to the winter lair, the bears entangle the track, looping around, thus hiding its location. During the winter sleep, the bear is sensitive to all hindrances: in fact, it is not a real hibernation, but a winter stupor. A bear wakes up when the fat reserves are exhausted: those who did not have enough time to get fat enough, wake up in a thaw and start looking for food. Bears, which for some reason did not live at all, do not lie down for the winter, but wander about in search of food: these are the so-called "rods".
Pregnant moths arrange deep, spacious and warm lairs, but necessarily with a ventilation vent. They willingly settle on the islands of moss bogs and near human habitation. Over the winter, the lair is covered with a snow blanket, which keeps the heat allocated by the bear.
After the bear wakes up, he tries to refresh himself. Brown bear is omnivorous, but mostly it eats vegetative food: it loves berries, preferring blueberries and raspberries, eats oats and corn eagerly. Nevertheless, an important component of his diet is the insects, their larvae and pupae, which he finds by tearing the ants of red ants, tearing the bark from the stumps and trees, ravaging aspen and bee nests, in which he eats honey even more. From animals, small vertebrates are attacked, first of all, mouse rodents, eggs and chickens of terrestrial oviparous birds. Bears are fishing in shallow water, using both paws and mouths at the same time. In large wild and domestic animals, brown bear attacks very rarely, mainly driven by hunger, and per person - if wounded, caught off guard with prey or disturbed in the winter lair.
Ghosn in brown bears begins in May. At this time, it is better not to meet with them, as with a bear walking its bear cubs. After 7 months of pregnancy, the bear gives birth to 2-3 cubs. Newborns weigh about half a kilogram each and grow very slowly. They become adults only after 10 years, and bears live somewhere up to 20 years and up to 40 - in captivity.
Externally, the brown bear looks rather awkward: raised withers, rounded back, large head, powerful neck and small paws. But this awkwardness is only external ... His sacrifice to overtake him is not difficult. Brown bear is a wonderful swimmer: swims up to 6 km at a time. In his youth, he willingly and dexterously climbs trees - so that he can not hide from trees. The brown bear is very well armed. Strongly developed paws (especially the front ones) are framed by long sickle-shaped claws. A powerful paw blow is capable of breaking the backbone of an adult person, and it is not difficult for him to pull out ribs or fracture a skull to a large animal. For a person, a wild bear is especially dangerous after awakening, when he is very hungry and does not even disdain even human. And it is quite bad to meet a bear in the winter - a connecting rod. Hungry and evil, he kills everyone who comes across him. It is naive to hope that the brown bear is kind and fluffy in zoos. Tablets in zoos "Wild animals do not feed and do not iron", and in the reserves - "Do not open the windows of cars" are not accidental. But not everyone is paying attention to them. So, in a safari park in the south of France, the bear tore off one hand to the visitor by the elbow, and she simply decided to feed the "sweet" animal with biscuits. In Yellowstone Park, a bear, attracted by the smell of meat, which was roasted at the stake, killed the tourists to death. And all from the fact that they decided to take their food away from the hungry animal. There were, of course, stories with real beasts-maniacs. For example, at the beginning of the century, one bear for 35 years terrorized the entire district in Colorado in a radius of one hundred kilometers. The bear killed at least 10 people and stabbed 800 heads of a large horned cat.
If you still had a chance to meet with a bear, try to behave as quietly as possible or climb higher. In most cases, the bear simply passes by. But if it happened that the bear is very close and is not at all friendly, you should make sure that he thinks you are bigger and higher. On creatures that are stronger than him, the bear simply does not attack. Do not beat him. From this, any beast just begins to get angry. Bear is no exception, he will defend himself.
For fear of this animal, people have been hunting for it for centuries. There were even special rewards for the captured bear. But murder is not an option. Just remember that the brown bear itself rarely attacks (except for "rods") and does not approach the place where people live. He simply ignores the various villages. And the best tool against the bear's attack is caution and caution once again.