Wolf (Canis lupus)
A person who has never seen a wolf can say that he is like a German and East European shepherd. Yes, the wolf is characterized by many qualities of the dog: it is just as strong and persistent, the external senses of it are just as well developed, in addition, it is very intelligent: one principle of collective hunting is worth it.
In fact, it is very difficult to confuse it with one of the dogs listed here. For this it is enough to see at least once. The wolf is different and habits and way of life, and outwardly looks very conditional. A large and muscular body, the belly is tightened, strong paws with fingers, located closely to each other, which helps with running and jumping. A small, neat head, but with a massive forehead. Small ears, and the tail is not very large. The view of the wolf is fierce and frightening enough. On the run, the wolf bears his head slightly lowered and therefore gives the impression of a stooped beast. The wolves have a characteristic run: it is definitely impossible to confuse him with a dog. The wolf is 2 times larger than an adult shepherd. The largest are the Central Russian and Siberian wolves. On average, these animals reach a weight of up to 70 kg. The farther south, the smaller the individuals become - not larger than 40 kg.
A wolf is one of the most common species. Its range covers all of Eurasia and the whole of North America. In Germany, as well as in the UK, it is completely exterminated, and in Iceland and the islands of the northern sea, perhaps, it never was. In principle, the wolf adapts to any conditions, unless, of course, there is a deficit in food. He lives either in mountainous areas (in the upper reaches of mountain streams) or in forests, preferring floodplains of the river marshy lowlands, where during this period moose, deer, wild boars are also especially eager to keep. His relatives are open spaces of steppes and forest-steppes in the south and forest-tundra and tundra in the north. Probably, wolves can live 12-15 years; many die from hunger, others die from a variety of diseases that they are exposed to in the same way as dogs.
The wolf is very fast and can travel a distance of several kilometers. True, he quickly loses strength, if he does not eat for a long time - he needs a lot of food. It must be taken into account that the hungrier the wolf, the fiercer it becomes. Wolves are kept one by one, in pairs, which are formed for life or by family groups; sometimes unite in packs of 10-12 individuals. In the litter, usually 4-6 cubs. The maternal instinct is very developed in females. If the family faces any danger, the she-wolf carries her young in turn to another, more secluded place. Young wolves grow up to 3 years. All this time the mother protects them, cares and, of course, teaches them how to hunt. For the fourth year, wolves are already starting an independent life.
Large fangs and powerful jaws make it a truly formidable predator. He can easily hunt large animals - an elk or a horse. But it feeds mainly on mammals of medium size, as well as birds. In case of famine, can eat berries and even locusts. Intellectual abilities allow him to find the optimal variants of "hunting organization", up to the fact that collective hunting with "beaters", directing and real "ambush" is arranged. The wolf can hunt down his victim for hours, follow her trail. He not only smells well the tracks, but even smells at a great distance. The wolf distinguishes traces of different animals and with great certainty follows the path that he chose, ignoring the others. Sometimes this persecution can last several days, and when he reaches the victim, it acts quickly: the wolf unexpectedly attacks the victim and immediately bites her throat.
In the developed forest areas, the wolf is directly adjacent to man. This made him a threat to people. In the summer, the wolf does not do as much harm as in the winter, as in the summer in the forest, except for herbivores, he finds many other foods: he catches foxes, hedgehogs, mice, various reptiles. At this time he attacks only on small livestock, which, without due supervision, grazes near. In the beginning of winter, he comes closer and closer to the villages and towns, and in small towns he hunts for dogs, which often make up his only prey. Without hesitation, he enters the barn, if the owner left the door open, sometimes even jumps in through an open window or attic and bites all the sheep or goats in the stable. Wild wolves rarely make such bold forays, but the inhabitants of many villages in places where wolves rage annually miss many of their dogs, and wolf hunters often lose dogs from their pack. When wolves wander in packs, they become bolder, attack both horses and cows, although they know how to defend themselves.
The person is attacked mostly by a rabid beast. However, cases of cannibalism are not rare. Especially, when their population starts to grow, and food resources sharply decrease. Finally, it should be noted that the danger of this beast still lies in the fact that it is a carrier of parasitic worms of livestock and a particularly dangerous disease - rabies. Then the beast becomes completely uncontrollable and kills everyone.